Book , Print in English

From neuron to brain

John G. Nicholls ... [et al.].
  • Sunderland, Mass. : Sinauer Associates, ©2012.
  • 5th ed.
  • xxiii, 621, [93] p. : illustrations(some colored) ; 29 cm.
Subjects
Medical Subjects
Contents
  • pt. I INTRODUCTION TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • ch. 1 Principles of Signaling and Organization
  • Signaling in Simple Neuronal Circuits
  • Complex Neuronal Circuitry in Relation to Higher Functions
  • Organization of the Retina
  • Shapes and Connections of Neurons
  • Cell Body, Axons, and Dendrites
  • Techniques for Identifying Neurons and Tracing Their Connections
  • Non-Neuronal Cells
  • Grouping of Cells According to Function
  • Complexity of Connections
  • Signaling in Nerve Cells
  • Universality of Electrical Signals
  • Techniques for Recording Signals from Neurons with Electrodes
  • Noninvasive Techniques for Recording and Stimulating Neuronal Activity
  • Spread of Local Graded Potentials and Passive Electrical Properties of Neurons
  • Spread of Potential Changes in Photoreceptors and Bipolar Cells
  • Properties of Action Potentials
  • Propagation of Action Potentials along Nerve Fibers
  • Action Potentials as the Neural Code
  • Synapses: The Sites for Cell-to-Cell Communication
  • Chemically Mediated Synaptic Transmission
  • Excitation and Inhibition
  • Electrical Transmission
  • Modulation of Synaptic Efficacy
  • Integrative Mechanisms
  • Complexity of the Information Conveyed by Action Potentials
  • Reverse Traffic of Signals from Higher to Lower Centers
  • Higher Functions of the Brain
  • Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurons
  • Signals for Development of the Nervous System
  • Regeneration of the Nervous System after Injury
  • ch. 2 Signaling in the Visual System
  • Pathways in the Visual System
  • Convergence and Divergence of Connections
  • Receptive Fields of Ganglion and Geniculate Cells
  • Concept of Receptive Fields
  • Output of the Retina
  • Ganglion and Geniculate Cell Receptive Field Organization
  • Sizes of Receptive Fields
  • Classification of Ganglion and Geniculate Cells
  • What Information Do Ganglion and Geniculate Cells Convey?
  • Box 2.1 Strategies for Exploring the Cortex
  • Cortical Receptive Fields
  • Responses of Simple Cells
  • Synthesis of the Simple Receptive Field
  • Responses of Complex Cells
  • Synthesis of the Complex Receptive Field
  • Receptive Fields: Units for Form Perception
  • ch. 3 Functional Architecture of the Visual Cortex
  • Retinotopic Maps
  • From Lateral Geniculate Nucleus to Visual Cortex
  • Segregation of Retinal Inputs to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
  • Cytoarchitecture of the Visual Cortex
  • Inputs, Outputs, and Layering of Cortex
  • Ocular Dominance Columns
  • Demonstration of Ocular Dominance Columns by Imaging
  • Orientation Columns
  • Cell Groupings for Color
  • Connections of Magnocellular and Parvocellular Pathways between V1 and Visual Area 2 (V2)
  • Relations between Ocular Dominance and Orientation Columns
  • Horizontal Intracortical Connections
  • Construction of a Single, Unified Visual Field from Inputs Arising in Two Eyes
  • Box 3.1 Corpus Callosum
  • Association Areas of Visual Cortex
  • Where Do We Go from Here?
  • pt. II ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF NEURONS AND GLIA
  • ch. 4 Ion Channels and Signaling
  • Properties of Ion Channels
  • Nerve Cell Membrane
  • What Does an Ion Channel Look Like?
  • Channel Selectivity
  • Open and Closed States
  • Modes of Activation
  • Measurement of Single-Channel Currents
  • Intracellular Recording with Microelectrodes
  • Channel Noise
  • Patch Clamp Recording
  • Single-Channel Currents
  • Channel Conductance
  • Conductance and Permeability
  • Equilibrium Potential
  • Nernst Equation
  • Nonlinear Current-Voltage Relations
  • Ion Permeation through Channels
  • Box 4.1 Measuring Channel Conductance
  • ch. 5 Structure of Ion Channels
  • Ligand-Activated Channels
  • Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
  • Amino Acid Sequence of AChR Subunits
  • Higher Order Chemical Structure
  • Other Nicotinic ACh Receptors
  • Box 5.1 Classification of Amino Acids
  • Receptor Superfamily
  • Receptor Structure and Function 82
  • Structure of the Pore Lining
  • High-Resolution Imaging of the AChR
  • Receptor Activation
  • Ion Selectivity and Conductance
  • Voltage-Activated Channels
  • Voltage-Activated Sodium Channel
  • Amino Acid Sequence and Tertiary Structure of the Sodium Channel
  • Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels
  • Voltage-Activated Potassium Channels
  • Pore Formation in Voltage-Activated Channels
  • High-Resolution Imaging of the Potassium Channel
  • Selectivity and Conductance
  • Gating of Voltage-Activated Channels
  • Other Channels
  • Glutamate Receptors
  • ATP-Activated Channels
  • Channels Activated by Cyclic Nucleotides
  • Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels
  • Voltage-Sensitive Chloride Channels
  • Inward-Rectifying Potassium Channels
  • 2P Channels
  • Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels
  • Diversity of Subunits
  • Conclusion
  • ch. 6 Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential
  • Model Cell
  • Ionic Equilibrium
  • Electrical Neutrality
  • Effect of Extracellular Potassium and Chloride on Membrane Potential
  • Membrane Potentials in Squid Axons
  • Effect of Sodium Permeability
  • Constant Field Equation
  • Resting Membrane Potential
  • Chloride Distribution
  • Electrical Model of the Membrane
  • Predicted Values of Membrane Potential
  • Contribution of the Sodium-Potassium Pump to the Membrane Potential
  • What Ion Channels Are Associated with the Resting Potential?
  • Changes in Membrane Potential
  • ch. 7 Ionic Basis of the Action Potential
  • Voltage Clamp Experiments
  • Capacitative and Leak Currents
  • Ionic Currents Carried by Sodium and Potassium
  • Selective Poisons for Sodium and Potassium Channels
  • Box 7.1 Voltage Clamp
  • Dependence of Ion Currents on Membrane Potential
  • Inactivation of the Sodium Current
  • Sodium and Potassium Conductances as Functions of Potential
  • Quantitative Description of Sodium and Potassium Conductances
  • Reconstruction of the Action Potential
  • Threshold and Refractory Period
  • Gating Currents
  • Mechanisms of Activation and Inactivation
  • Activation and Inactivation of Single Channels
  • Afterpotentials
  • Role of Calcium in Excitation
  • Calcium Action Potentials
  • Calcium Ions and Excitability
  • ch. 8 Electrical Signaling in Neurons
  • Specific Electrical Properties of Cell Membranes
  • Flow of Current in a Nerve Fiber
  • Box 8.1 Relation between Cable Constants and Specific Membrane Properties
  • Action Potential Propagation
  • Myelinated Nerves and Saltatory Conduction
  • Box 8.2 Classification of Vertebrate Nerve Fibers
  • Distribution of Channels in Myelinated Fibers
  • Geometry and Conduction Block
  • Conduction in Dendrites
  • Pathways for Current Flow between Cells
  • ch. 9 Ion Transport across Cell Membranes
  • Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump
  • Biochemical Properties of Sodium-Potassium ATPase
  • Experimental Evidence that the Pump Is Electrogenic
  • Mechanism of Ion Translocation
  • Calcium Pumps
  • Endoplasmic and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase
  • Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchange
  • NCX Transport System
  • Reversal of Sodium-Calcium Exchange
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchange in Retinal Rods
  • Chloride Transport
  • Inward Chloride Transport
  • Outward Potassium-Chloride Cotransport
  • Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchange
  • Transport of Neurotransmitters
  • Transport into Presynaptic Vesicles
  • Transmitter Uptake
  • Molecular Structure of Transporters
  • ATPases
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchangers
  • Chloride Transporters
  • Transport Molecules for Neurotransmitters
  • Significance of Transport Mechanisms
  • ch. 10 Properties and Functions of Neuroglial Cells
  • Historical Perspective
  • Appearance and Classification of Glial Cells
  • Structural Relations between Neurons, Glia, and Capillaries
  • Physiological Properties of Neuroglial Cell Membranes
  • Ion Channels, Pumps, and Receptors in Glial Cell Membranes
  • Electrical Coupling between Glial Cells
  • Functions of Neuroglial Cells
  • Myelin and the Role of Neuroglial Cells in Axonal Conduction
  • Glial Cells and Development
  • Role of Microglial Cells in CNS Repair and Regeneration
  • Schwann Cells as Pathways for Outgrowth in Peripheral Nerves
  • Cautionary Note
  • Effects of Neuronal Activity on Glial Cells
  • Potassium Accumulation in Extracellular Space
  • Potassium and Calcium Movement through Glial Cells
  • Calcium Waves in Glial Cells
  • Spatial Buffering of Extracellular Potassium Concentration by Glia
  • Glial Cells and Neurotransmitters
  • Release of Transmitters by Glial Cells
  • Immediate Effects of Glial Cells on Synaptic Transmission
  • Glial Cells and the Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Astrocytes and Blood Flow through the Brain
  • Box 10.1 Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Transfer of Metabolites from Glial Cells to Neurons
  • Glial Cells and Immune Responses of the CNS
  • pt. III INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION
  • ch. 11 Mechanisms of Direct Synaptic Transmission
  • Synaptic Transmission
  • Chemical Synaptic Transmission
  • Box 11.1 Electrical or Chemical Transmission?
  • Synaptic Structure
  • Synaptic Potentials at the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Box 11.2 Drugs and Toxins Acting at the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Box 11.3 Action of Tubocurarine at the Motor End Plate
  • Mapping the Region of the Muscle Fiber Receptive to ACh
  • Morphological Demonstration of the Distribution of ACh Receptors
  • Measurement of Ionic Currents Produced by ACh
  • Significance of the Reversal Potential
  • Relative Contributions of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium to the End-Plate Potential
  • Resting Membrane Conductance and Synaptic Potential Amplitude --
  • Contents note continued: Kinetics of Currents through Single ACh Receptor Channels
  • Box 11.4 Electrical Model of the Motor End Plate
  • Excitatory Synaptic Potentials in the CNS
  • Direct Synaptic Inhibition
  • Reversal of Inhibitory Potentials
  • Presynaptic Inhibition
  • Transmitter Receptor Localization
  • Electrical Synaptic Transmission
  • Identification and Characterization of Electrical Synapses
  • Comparison of Electrical and Chemical Transmission
  • ch. 12 Indirect Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission
  • Direct Versus Indirect Transmission
  • G Protein-Coupled Metabotropic Receptors and G Proteins
  • Structure of G Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Box 12.1 Receptors, G Proteins, and Effectors: Convergence and Divergence in G Protein Signaling
  • G Proteins
  • Modulation of Ion Channel Function by Receptor-Activated G Proteins: Direct Actions
  • G Protein Activation of Potassium Channels
  • Box 12.2 Identifying Responses Mediated by G Proteins
  • G Protein Inhibition of Calcium Channels Involved in Transmitter Release
  • G Protein Activation of Cytoplasmic Second Messenger Systems
  • β-Adrenergic Receptors Activate Calcium Channels via a G Protein---the Adenylyl Cyclase Pathway
  • Box 12.3 Cyclic AMP as a Second Messenger
  • Box 12.4 Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the phosphoinositide (PI) Cycle
  • G Protein Activation of Phospholipase C
  • Direct Actions of PIP2
  • G Protein Activation of Phospholipase A2
  • Convergence and Divergence of Signals Generated by Indirectly Coupled Receptors
  • Retrograde Signaling via Endocannabinoids
  • Box 12.5 Formation and Metabolism of Endocannabinoids
  • Signaling via Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide
  • Calcium as an Intracellular Second Messenger
  • Actions of Calcium
  • Box 12.6 Measuring Intracellular Calcium
  • Prolonged Time Course of Indirect Transmitter Action
  • ch. 13 Release of Neurotransmitters
  • Characteristics of Transmitter Release
  • Axon Terminal Depolarization and Release
  • Synaptic Delay
  • Evidence that Calcium Is Required for Release
  • Measurement of Calcium Entry into Presynaptic Nerve Terminals
  • Localization of Calcium Entry Sites
  • Transmitter Release by Intracellular Concentration Jumps
  • Other Factors Regulating Transmitter Release
  • Quantal Release
  • Spontaneous Release of Multimolecular Quanta
  • Fluctuations in the End-Plate Potential
  • Statistical Analysis of the End-Plate Potential
  • Box 13.1 Statistical Fluctuation in Quantal Release
  • Quantum Content at Neuronal Synapses
  • Number of Molecules in a Quantum
  • Number of Channels Activated by a Quantum
  • Changes in Mean Quantal Size at the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Nonquantal Release
  • Vesicles and Transmitter Release
  • Ultrastructure of Nerve Terminals
  • Morphological Evidence for Exocytosis
  • Release of Vesicle Contents by Exocytosis
  • Monitoring Exocytosis and Endocytosis in Living Cells
  • Mechanism of Exocytosis
  • High-Resolution Structure of Synaptic Vesicle Attachments
  • Reuptake of Synaptic Vesicles
  • Vesicle Recycling Pathways
  • Ribbon Synapses
  • Vesicle Pools
  • ch. 14 Neurotransmitters in the Central Nervous System
  • Chemical Transmission in the CNS
  • Mapping Neurotransmitter Pathways
  • Box 14.1 Discovery of Central Transmitters: I. The Amino Acids
  • Box 14.2 Discovery of Central Transmitters: II. Neuropeptides
  • Visualizing Transmitter-Specific Neurons in Living Brain Tissue
  • Key Transmitters
  • Glutamate
  • GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid) and glycine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Biogenic Amines
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  • Peptides
  • Substance P
  • Opioid Peptides
  • Orexins (Hypocretins)
  • Vasopressin and Oxytocin: The Social Brain
  • ch. 15 Transmitter Synthesis, Transport, Storage, and Inactivation
  • Neurotransmitter Synthesis
  • Synthesis of ACh
  • Synthesis of Dopamine and Norepinephrine
  • Synthesis of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
  • Synthesis of GABA
  • Synthesis of Glutamate
  • Short- and Long-Term Regulation of Transmitter Synthesis
  • Synthesis of Neuropeptides
  • Storage of Transmitters in Synaptic Vesicles
  • Co-Storage and Co-Release
  • Axonal Transport
  • Rate and Direction of Axonal Transport
  • Microtubules and Fast Transport
  • Mechanism of Slow Axonal Transport
  • Removal of Transmitters from the Synaptic Cleft
  • Removal of ACh by Acetylcholinesterase
  • Removal of ATP by Hydrolysis
  • Removal of Transmitters by Uptake
  • ch. 16 Synaptic Plasticity
  • Short-Term Changes in Signaling
  • Facilitation and Depression of Transmitter Release
  • Post-Tetanic Potentiation and Augmentation
  • Mechanisms Underlying Short-Term Synaptic Changes
  • Long-Term Changes in Signaling
  • Long-Term Potentiation
  • Associative LTP in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells
  • Mechanisms Underlying the Induction of LTP
  • Silent Synapses
  • Presynaptic LTP
  • Long-Term Depression
  • LTD in the Cerebellum
  • Mechanisms Underlying LTD
  • Presynaptic LTD
  • Significance of Changes in Synaptic Efficacy
  • pt. IV INTEGRATIVE MECHANISMS
  • ch. 17 Autonomic Nervous System
  • Functions under Involuntary Control
  • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
  • Synaptic Transmission in Autonomic Ganglia
  • M-Currents in Autonomic Ganglia
  • Transmitter Release by Postganglionic Axons
  • Purinergic Transmission
  • Box 17.1 Path to Understanding Sympathetic Mechanisms
  • Sensory Inputs to the Autonomic Nervous System
  • Enteric Nervous System
  • Regulation of Autonomic Functions by the Hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamic Neurons That Release Hormones
  • Distribution and Numbers of GnRH Cells
  • Circadian Rhythms
  • ch. 18 Cellular Mechanisms of Behavior in Ants, Bees, and Leeches
  • From Behavior to Neurons and Vice Versa
  • Navigation by Ants and Bees
  • Desert Ant's Pathway Home
  • Polarized Light Detection by the Ant's Eye
  • Strategies for Finding the Nest
  • Polarized Light and Twisted Photoreceptors
  • Additional Mechanisms for Navigation by Ants and Bees
  • Neural Mechanisms for Navigation
  • Behavioral Analysis at the Level of Individual Neurons in the CNS of the Leech
  • Leech Ganglia: Semiautonomous Units
  • Sensory Cells in Leech Ganglia
  • Motor Cells
  • Connections of Sensory and Motor Cells
  • Higher Order Behaviors in the Leech
  • Habituation, Sensitization, and Conduction Block
  • Circuits Responsible for the Production of Rhythmical Swimming
  • To Swim or to Crawl? Neurons that Determine Behavioral Choices in the Leech
  • Why Should One Work on Invertebrate Nervous Systems?
  • pt. V SENSATION AND MOVEMENT
  • ch. 19 Sensory Transduction
  • Stimulus Coding by Mechanoreceptors
  • Short and Long Receptors
  • Encoding Stimulus Parameters by Stretch Receptors
  • Crayfish Stretch Receptor
  • Muscle Spindles
  • Responses to Static and Dynamic Muscle Stretch
  • Mechanisms of Adaptation in Mechanoreceptors
  • Adaptation in the Pacinian Corpuscle
  • Direct Transduction by Mechanosensory Hair Cells
  • Mechanosensory Hair Cells of the Vertebrate Ear
  • Structure of Hair Cell Receptors
  • Transduction by Hair Bundle Deflection
  • Tip Links and Gating Springs
  • Transduction Channels in Hair Cells
  • Adaptation of Hair Cells
  • Olfaction
  • Olfactory Receptors
  • Olfactory Response
  • Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels in Olfactory Receptors
  • Coupling the Receptor to Ion Channels
  • Odorant Specificity
  • Mechanisms of Taste (Gustation)
  • Taste Receptor Cells
  • Taste Modalities
  • Pain and Temperature Sensation in Skin
  • Activation and Sensitization of Nociceptors
  • ch. 20 Transduction and Transmission in the Retina
  • Eye
  • Anatomical Pathways in the Visual System
  • Layering of Cells in the Retina
  • Phototransduction in Retinal Rods and Cones
  • Arrangement and Morphology of Photoreceptors
  • Electrical Responses of Vertebrate Photoreceptors to Light
  • Visual Pigments
  • Absorption of Light by Visual Pigments
  • Structure of Rhodopsin
  • Cones and Color Vision
  • Color Blindness
  • Transduction
  • Properties of the Photoreceptor Channels
  • Molecular Structure of Cyclic GMP-Gated Channels
  • cGMP Cascade
  • Amplification through the cGMP Cascade
  • Responses to Single Quanta of Light
  • Box 20.1 Adaptation of Photoreceptors
  • Orcadian Photoreceptors in the Mammalian Retina
  • Synaptic Organization of the Retina
  • Bipolar, Horizontal, and Amacrine cells
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission in the Retina
  • Receptive Fields of Retinal Neurons
  • Responses of Bipolar Cells
  • Receptive Field Organization of Bipolar Cells
  • Rod Bipolar Cells
  • Horizontal Cells and Surround Inhibition
  • Significance of Receptive Field Organization of Bipolar Cells
  • Receptive Fields of Ganglion Cells
  • Output of the Retina
  • Ganglion Cell Receptive Field Organization
  • Sizes of Receptive Fields
  • Classification of Ganglion Cells
  • Synaptic Inputs to Ganglion Cells Responsible for Receptive Field Organization
  • Amacrine Cell Control of Ganglion Cell Responses
  • What Information Do Ganglion Cells Convey?
  • ch. 21 Touch, Pain, and Texture Sensation
  • From Receptors to Cortex
  • Receptors in the Skin
  • Anatomy of Receptor Neurons
  • Sensations Evoked by Afferent Signals
  • Ascending Pathways
  • Somatosensory Cortex
  • Pain Perception and its Modulation
  • Somatosensory System Organization and Texture Sensation in Rats and Mice
  • Whiskers of Mice and Rats
  • Magnification Factor
  • Topographic Map of the Whiskers and Columnar Organization
  • Map Development and Plasticity
  • Box 21.1 Variation across Species in Cortical Maps --
  • Contents note continued: Texture Sensation through the Whiskers: Peripheral Mechanisms
  • Texture Sensation through the Whiskers: Cortical Mechanisms
  • Somatosensory System Organization and Texture Sensation in Primates
  • Magnification Factor
  • Topographic Map of the Skin and Columnar Organization
  • Map Plasticity
  • Texture Sensation through the Fingertip: Peripheral Mechanisms
  • Texture Sensation through the Fingertip: Cortical Mechanisms
  • ch. 22 Auditory and Vestibular Sensation
  • Auditory System: Encoding the Frequency Composition of Sound
  • Cochlea
  • Frequency Selectivity: Mechanical Tuning
  • Electromotility of Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells
  • Efferent Inhibition of the Cochlea
  • Frequency Selectivity in Nonmammalian Vertebrates: Electrical Tuning of Hair Cells
  • Hair Cell Potassium Channels and Electrical Tuning
  • Auditory Pathway: Transmission between Hair Cells and Eighth Nerve Fibers
  • Stimulus Coding by Primary Afferent Neurons
  • Brainstem and Thalamus
  • Sound Localization
  • Auditory Cortex
  • Vestibular System: Encoding Head Motion and Position
  • Vestibular Hair Cells and Neurons
  • Adequate Stimulus for the Saccule and Utricle
  • Adequate Stimulus for the Semicircular Canals
  • Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex
  • Higher Order Vestibular Function
  • ch. 23 Constructing Perception
  • What Is the Function of Cortical Processing?
  • Tactile Working Memory Task and its Representation in Primary Somatosensory Cortex
  • Behavioral Task
  • Neuronal Representation of Vibration Sensations in SI
  • Replacement of Vibrations by Artificial Stimuli
  • Transformation from Sensation to Action
  • Activity in SI across Successive Stages of the Task
  • Activity in Regions beyond SI
  • Neurons Associated with Decision Making
  • Visual Object Perception in Primates
  • Object Perception and the Ventral Visual Pathway
  • Deficits in Object Perception
  • Images that Activate Neurons in the Ventral Stream
  • Discovery of Responses to Complex Stimuli in Monkeys
  • Special Case of Faces
  • Box 23.1 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Perceptual Invariance and Neuronal Response Invariance
  • Dorsal Intracortical Visual Pathways and Motion Detection
  • Transformation from Elements to Percepts
  • Merging of Features
  • Speed of Processing
  • Forms of Coding
  • Top-Down Inputs
  • Further Processing
  • ch. 24 Circuits Controlling Reflexes, Respiration, and Coordinated Movements
  • Motor Unit
  • Synaptic Inputs to Motoneurons
  • Unitary Synaptic Potentials in Motoneurons
  • Size Principle and Graded Contractions
  • Spinal Reflexes
  • Reciprocal Innervation
  • Central Nervous System Control of Muscle Spindles
  • Flexor Reflexes
  • Generation of Coordinated Movements
  • Neural Control of Respiration
  • Locomotion
  • Sensory Feedback and Central Pattern Generator Programs
  • Organization of Descending Motor Control
  • Terminology
  • Supraspinal Control of Motoneurons
  • Lateral Motor Pathways
  • Medial Motor Pathways
  • Motor Cortex and the Execution of Voluntary Movement
  • What Do Motor Maps Mean?
  • Cellular Activity and Movement
  • Cortical Cell Activity Related to Direction of Arm Movements
  • Higher Control of Movement
  • Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
  • Cerebellum
  • Connections of the Cerebellum
  • Synaptic Organization of the Cerebellar Cortex
  • What Does the Cerebellum Do and How Does It Do It?
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Circuitry of the Basal Ganglia
  • Diseases of the Basal Ganglia
  • pt. VI DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • ch. 25 Development of the Nervous System
  • Development: General Considerations
  • Genomic Equivalence and Cell Type Diversity
  • Cell Fate Maps Provide a Description of Normal Development
  • Box 25.1 Conserved Signaling Pathways for Early Development and Neurogenesis
  • Early Morphogenesis of the Nervous System
  • Patterning along Anteroposterior and Dorsoventral Axes
  • Anteroposterior Patterning and Segmentation in Hindbrain
  • Dorsoventral Patterning in the Spinal Cord
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Proliferation in the Ventricular Zone
  • Cell Proliferation via Radial Glia
  • When Do Neurons Stop Dividing? Adult Neurogenesis
  • Migration
  • Migration of Cortical Neurons
  • Genetic Abnormalities of Cortical Layers in Reeler Mice
  • Determination of Cell Phenotype
  • Lineage of Neurons and Glial Cells
  • Control of Transmitter Choice in the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Changes in Receptors during Development
  • Axon Outgrowth and Growth Cone Navigation
  • Growth Cones, Axon Elongation, and the Role of Actin
  • Cell and Extracellular Matrix Adhesion Molecules and Axon Outgrowth
  • Growth Cone Guidance: Target-Dependent and Target-Independent Navigation
  • Target-Dependent Navigation via Guidepost Cells
  • Growth Cone Navigation along Gradients
  • Growth Factors and Survival of Neurons
  • Cell Death in the Developing Nervous System
  • Nerve Growth Factor
  • NGF in the Central Nervous System
  • Neurotrophins and other Families of Growth Factors
  • Formation of Connections
  • Establishment of the Retinotectal Map
  • Synapse Formation
  • Pruning and the Removal of Polyneuronal Innervation
  • Neuronal Activity and Synapse Elimination
  • General Considerations of Neural Specificity and Development
  • ch. 26 Critical Periods in Sensory Systems
  • Visual System in Newborn Monkeys and Kittens
  • Receptive Fields and Response Properties of Cortical Cells in Newborn Animals
  • Ocular Dominance Columns in Newborn Monkeys and Kittens
  • Postnatal Development of Ocular Dominance Columns
  • Effects of Abnormal Visual Experience in Early Life
  • Blindness after Lid Closure
  • Responses of Cortical Cells after Monocular Deprivation
  • Relative Importance of Diffuse Light and Form for Maintaining Normal Responses
  • Morphological Changes in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus after Visual Deprivation
  • Morphological Changes in the Cortex after Visual Deprivation
  • Critical Period for Susceptibility to Lid Closure
  • Recovery during the Critical Period
  • Requirements for Maintenance of Functioning Connections in the Visual System
  • Binocular Lid Closure and the Role of Competition
  • Effects of Strabismus (Squint)
  • Changes in Orientation Preference
  • Segregation of Visual Inputs without Competition
  • Effects of Impulse Activity on the Developing Visual System
  • Synchronized Spontaneous Activity in the Absence of Inputs during Development
  • Role of y-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and Trophic Molecules in Development of Columnar Architecture
  • Critical Periods in Somatosensory and Olfactory Systems
  • Sensory Deprivation and Critical Periods in the Auditory System
  • Regulation of Synapse Formation by Activity in the Cochlear Nucleus
  • Box 26.1 Cochlear Implant
  • Critical Periods in the Auditory System of Barn Owls
  • Effects of Enriched Sensory Experience in Early Life
  • Critical Periods in Humans and Clinical Consequences
  • ch. 27 Regeneration of Synaptic Connections after Injury
  • Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Wallerian Degeneration and Removal of Debris
  • Retrograde Transsynaptic Effects of Axotomy
  • Effects of Denervation on Postsynaptic Cells
  • Denervated Muscle Membrane
  • Appearance of New ACh Receptors (AChRs) after Denervation or Prolonged Inactivity of Muscle
  • Synthesis and Degradation of Receptors in Denervated Muscle
  • Role of Muscle Inactivity in Denervation Supersensitivity
  • Role of Calcium in Development of Supersensitivity in Denervated Muscle
  • Supersensitivity of Peripheral Nerve Cells after Removal of Synaptic Inputs
  • Susceptibility of Normal and Denervated Muscles to New Innervation
  • Role of Schwann Cells and Microglia in Axon Outgrowth after Injury
  • Denervation-Induced Axonal Sprouting
  • Appropriate and Inappropriate Reinnervation
  • Basal Lamina, Agrin, and the Formation of Synaptic Specializations
  • Identification of Agrin
  • Role of Agrin in Synapse Formation
  • Mechanism of Action of Agrin
  • Regeneration in the Mammalian CNS
  • Glial Cells and CNS Regeneration
  • Schwann Cell Bridges and Regeneration
  • Formation of Synapses by Axons Regenerating in the Mammalian CNS
  • Regeneration in Immature Mammalian CNS
  • Neuronal Transplants
  • Prospects for Developing Treatment of Spinal Cord Inj ury in Patients
  • pt. VII CONCLUSION
  • ch. 28 Open Questions
  • Cellular and Molecular Studies of Neuronal Functions
  • Functional Importance of Intercellular Transfer of Materials
  • Development and Regeneration
  • Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Nervous System
  • Sensory and Motor Integration
  • Rhythmicity
  • Input from Clinical Neurology to Studies of the Brain
  • Input from Basic Neuroscience to Neurology
  • Rate of Progress
  • Conclusions.
Other information
  • Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN
  • 9780878936090 (alk. paper)
  • 0878936092 (alk. paper)
Identifying numbers
  • LCCN: 2011037528
  • OCLC: 754186785

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